Bioestabilización de excretas avícolas mediante microorganismos eficientes para el control de la contaminación ambiental

  • Ayda De La Cruz Balón Escuela Superior Politécnica Agropecuaria de Manabí “Manuel Félix López” - Ecuador
  • José Calderón Escuela Superior Politécnica Agropecuaria de Manabí “Manuel Félix López” - Ecuador
  • Ana María Aveiga Ortiz Escuela Superior Politécnica Agropecuaria de Manabí “Manuel Félix López” - Ecuador
  • Hugo Cobeña Escuela Superior Politécnica Agropecuaria de Manabí “Manuel Félix López” - Ecuador
  • Mailie Mendoza Escuela Superior Politécnica Agropecuaria de Manabí “Manuel Félix López” - Ecuador

Resumen

In the city of Calceta (Manabí, Ecuador) three poultry farms have been identified for the production of eggs, which do not perform any treatment of the excreta of the laying birds, which leads to the generation of gases and bad odors that affect the population. The present work analyzes the efficiency in the reduction of air pollution when treating poultry excreta with different doses of efficient microorganisms (EMs). The experiment was designed in a unifactorial way with four treatments, based on 5 Kg of poultry excreta. Volumetric doses were added in the following order: 0,5; 1,0; and 1,5 liters of EMs; while, 1 liter of water was added as control. The monitoring parameters were pH, humidity, ammonium and the number of colonies of Bacillus spp., Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts. The biostabilization process was evaluated with two measurements, the first at 10 days and the second at 20 days of application of the EMs. The results show that at 20 days the pH values ​​reached ranges between 8,3 and 7,6; a decrease in ammonium concentrations from 3,14 mg/L to 0,60 mg/L was achieved; in the case of humidity, there was a decrease of approximately 50%, which affected the decrease of the microbial population of yeasts, Bacillus spp., and Lactobacillus spp. in more than 90%. In conclusion, the efficient microorganisms allow the reduction of more than 70% of bad odors represented by ammonia, generated by the accumulation of poultry excreta.


Index Terms— Efficient microorganisms, poultry, wastes, air contamination, aerobiology, pathogens

Citas

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Publicado
2019-07-19
Sección
Artículos