Extracción secuencial de plomo y vanadio en sedimentos del río Catatumbo utilizando FAAS, ETAAS e ICP-AES

Sequential extraction of lead and vanadium in sediments from Catatumbo river using FAAS, ETAAS and ICP-AES

  • Julio Cesar Torres Puentes
  • Marinela Colina
  • Yulixis Nohemi Cano de Torres

Resumen

Se presenta la evaluación del procedimiento de extracción secuencial aprobado por la BCR (BCR, por sus siglas en inglés, Community Bureau of Reference) para determinar metales en muestras de sedimentos del río Catatumbo, Venezuela. Las fracciones consistieron en 4 etapas: en la primera, llamada intercambiable, se extrajo utilizando ácido acético; la segunda, o reducible, con hidroxicloruro de amonio; la tercera, u oxidable, con peróxido de hidrógeno y acetato de amonio y la residual, que es la etapa remanente, se digirió con agua regia. El análisis se realizó por espectrometría de absorción atómica con llama (FAAS), horno de grafito (ETAAS) y espectrometría de emisión atómica con plasma inductivamente acoplado (ICP-AES). Los metales determinados fueron Pb y V. Las determinaciones por FAAS, ETAAS e ICP-AES indicaron que no hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0,05) cuando se compararon los resultados de 24 muestras de sedimentos del río Catatumbo realizadas por triplicado. La exactitud encontrada sumando las cuatro etapas de la BCR para Pb y V fueron comparables a los resultados obtenidos por digestión ácida, lo cual indica que el procedimiento es adecuado para la cuantificación de los metales estudiados. El Pb y V se encontró mayormente (55-97 %) en la etapa residual lo que los hace no disponibles.


Palabras clave: digestión ácida, extracción BCR, sedimento, plomo, vanadio 


Abstract:


The aim of the present work is the evaluation of the procedure of sequential extraction approved by the BCR and used to determine metals in samples of sediments from Catatumbo River in Venezuela. The fractions consisted in four (4) stages: the first one or interchangeable was extracted using acetic acid, the second one or reducible with ammonia hydroxi-chloride, the third one or oxidable with hydrogen peroxide and ammonium acetate and the residual which is the remnant stage was digested with aqua regia. The analysis was made by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS), Electrothermal Atomisation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETA-AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The metals evaluated were Pb and V. The evaluations for FAAS, ETA-AS and ICP-AES indicated that there were not statistically significant differences (p <0.05) when the results of 24 samples of sediments from the Catatumbo River carried out in triplicate were compared. The exact result found by adding the four stages of the BCR for Pb and V were comparable to the results obtained by acid digestion. The Pb and V were found mainly (55-97 %) in the residual stage which makes them not available and these results are comparable to other studies published.


Key words: Acid Digestion, Extraction of BCR, sediment, Pb, V 

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Publicado
2016-12-01
Sección
Ciencias Químicas