Variaciones en el contenido de proteína, lípidos y ácidos grasos de la semilla de chía (Salvia hispanica L.) producida comercialmente en Ecuador

  • Ricardo Ayerza (h) The University of Arizona

Resumen

Variations in the protein, lipid and fatty acid content of the commercial chia seed (Salvia hispánica L.) produced in Ecuador


Resumen


El objetivo fue determinar las variaciones en los contenidos de proteína, lípidos y composición de ácidos grasos de las semillas de chía producidas comercialmente en seis sitios de los ecosistemas de los Valles Interandinos (Altos y Bajos), Selva Lluviosa Pluviestacional y Bosque Seco Tropical, del Ecuador. El contenido de proteína fue más alto (p<0,05) en las semillas de Bosque de Oro (24,78%) y El Azúcar (24,35%) que las de los otros cuatro sitios, y sin diferencias significativas (P<0,05) entre ellos. Las semillas de Bosque de Oro (34,90%) y San Pablo presentaron el más alto contenido de lípidos, aunque sin diferencias significativas (p<0,05) con las de Salinas (32,65%) y Patate (31.97%). Las semillas originadas en Salinas presentaron el mayor (p<0,05) contenido de α-linolénico (66,75%), seguido por las de Patate (63,93%), Guayllabamba (63,57%), Bosque de Oro (63,53%) y San Pablo (62,70%). El ácido graso α-linolénico presentó una alta relación negativa con los ácidos grasos palmítico (R2 = 0,797; p<0,001), linoleico (R2 = 0,862; p<0,001), y oleico (R2 = 0,767; p<0,001).


Palabras clave: aceite; ácidos grasos; chía; Ecuador; Salvia hispánica L.


Abstract


The objective was to determine the variations in the protein content, lipids and fatty acids composition of the chia seeds commercially produced in six locations of the Inter-Andean Valley (Low and high), Rainforest and Tropical Dry Forest ecosystems of Ecuador. The protein content was higher (p< 0.05) in the seeds from Bosque de Oro (24.78%) and El Azúcar (24.35%) than those originated in the other four locations and without significant differences (p < 0.05) between them. The seeds of Bosque de Oro (34.90%) and San Pablo had the highest lipid content, although without significant differences (p<0.05) with those of Salinas (32.65%) and Patate (31.97%). The seeds originated in Salinas had the highest (p<0.05) content of α-linolenic (66.75%), followed by those of Patate (63.93%), Guayllabamba (63.57%), Bosque de Oro (63.53%) and San Pablo (62.70%). The α-linolenic fatty acid showed a high negative relationship with palmitic fatty acids (R2 = 0.797; p<0,001), linoleic (R2 = 0.862; p<0.001), and oleic (R2 = 0.767; p<0.001).


Keywords: chia; Ecuador; fatty acids; oil; Salvia hispanica L.

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Associate in Arid Lands, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA.

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Publicado
2019-12-18
Sección
Agricultura y Silvicultura