Bioseguridad en el cultivo de camarones penaeidos: una revisión

Biosecurity on penaeid shrimp farming: A review

  • Arnaldo Figueredo Universidad de Oriente, Venezuela http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9030-2453
  • José Luis Fuentes Universidad de Oriente, Venezuela
  • Tomás Cabrera Universidad de Oriente, Venezuela
  • Jesús León Universidad de Oriente, Venezuela
  • José Patti Universidad de Oriente, Venezuela
  • José Silva Universidad de Oriente, Venezuela
  • Ernesto Ron Universidad de Oriente, Venezuela
  • Orlando Pichardo Universidad de Oriente, Venezuela
  • Nelson Marcano Universidad de Oriente, Venezuela

Resumen

 
La camaronicultura ha venido creciendo significativamente en las últimas décadas,  particularmente  en  el  sudeste  asiático,  India  y  Ecuador.  Paralelamente,  la bioseguridad  se  ha  presentado  como  una  necesidad  del  aparato  productivo  debido  a  la frecuencia,  magnitud  y  naturaleza  de  las  enfermedades  que  afectan  a  los  camarones penaeidos.  En  este  artículo  se  revisan  las  estrategias  que  han  sido  incluidas  en  este concepto y las que pudieran serlo en el futuro, para asegurar la sustentabilidad del sector productivo. Entre los aspectos más conocidos, pero no necesariamente aplicados, pueden citarse  la  definición  precisa  y  constante  de  la  condición  sanitaria  de  los  camarones cultivados,  la  concepción  de  planes  de  bioseguridad,  la  utilización  de  cepas  libres  de patógenos  específicos  (Specific  Pathogen  Free  o  SPF),  el  fortalecimiento  de  las capacidades diagnósticas en sus tres niveles (signos clínicos, presuntivo y avanzado), la incorporación de análisis de los riesgos sanitarios, la regulación del ingreso de personas a los centros productivos, el establecimiento de protocolos de buenas prácticas de cultivo y la  completa  restricción  de  la  fauna  silvestre  o  doméstica  dentro de  las  instalaciones de cultivo.  Algunos  paradigmas  no  son  tan  ampliamente  manejados,  aunque  revisten  gran importancia, como el involucramiento de múltiples niveles de acción, la implementación del mapeo sanitario, la formulación de planes de contingencia y simulacros, la definición de planes de compensación, la masificación del conocimiento sobre patobiología de los camarones  penaeidos  y  bioseguridad  entre  los  participantes  del  ciclo  productivo,  la sustitución de alimentación fresca, el mayor control del entorno, la apropiada disposición de  residuos  orgánicos,  la  aplicación  de  probióticos  y  manejo  de  microbiomas,  y  el fomento de investigación aplicada. La bioseguridad ha venido adquiriendo relevancia y actualmente es imprescindible para el mantenimiento del cultivo de camarones penaeidos como actividad productiva rentable y sostenible. 
Palabras clave: Enfermedad; patógeno; Panaeus; riesgos sanitarios
 
Abstract
Shrimp farming has been growing very significantly in the last decades, particularly  in  Southeast  Asia,  India  and  Ecuador.  In  parallel,  biosecurity  has  been presented  as  a  necessity  of  the  productive  sector  due  to  the  frequency,  magnitude  and nature of diseases affecting penaeid shrimp. The current article reviews the strategies that have  been  included  in  this  concept  and  those  that  may  be  in  the  future,  to  ensure  the sustainability  of  productive  sector.  Among  the  best  known  but  not  necessarily  applied aspects,  it  can  be  cited  the  precise  and  constant  definition  of  the  health  condition  of cultured shrimps, design of biosecurity plans, the use of Specific Pathogen Free strains (SPF), strengthening of diagnostic capacity at its three levels (clinical signs, presumptive and advanced), incorporation of sanitary risks analysis, regulation of the entry of persons to farms, establishment of protocols for better farming practices and complete restriction of wild or domestic fauna within the culture facilities. Some paradigms are not so widely managed,  although  they  are  of  great  importance,  such  as  the  involvement  of  multiple levels  of  action,  implementation  of  sanitary  mapping,  formulation  of  contingency  and mock  plans,  implementation  of  compensation  programs,  massification  of  knowledge about  penaeid  shrimp  pathology  and  biosecurity  among  participants  of  the  production cycle,  replacement  fresh  feed,  better  environmental  control,  proper  disposal  of  organic waste,  application  of  probiotics  and  management  of  microbiomes,  and  promotion  of applied research. Biosecurity has been gaining relevance and is currently essential for the maintenance  of  penaeid  shrimp  farming  as  a  profitable  and  sustainable  productive activity. 
Keywords: Disease pathogen; patógeno; Panaeus; snitary risks

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Publicado
2020-05-13
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Artículo de Revisión